The hostelry A major engine of job creation, it has returned to pre-Covid levels, but many other sectors are starting to show some signs of uncertainty in the face of the Covid-19 crisis. economic break what is happening right now. Inflation, rising interest rates, fuel prices, rising electricity tariffs and an ending summer cast doubt on a promising future.
To the above must be added the already known data of the unemployment rate of the past August. The unemployment rate rose in 40,428 people, therefore, unemployment rises again in the summer, placing the total number of unemployed affected in the State Public Employment Service (SEPE) in 2,924,240 million.
Despite the figures, the Minister of Labour, Yolanda Diaz, wanted to give an encouraging message by expressing that “we already knew that August would come with data that was not so positive, but, even so, it is in the normal expected terms”. A statement which was also made by the Minister of Social SecurityJose Luis Escriva.
At the same time, membership data was released, in seasonally adjusted terms, which was produced in August 2022. Although it has not yet fallen below the barrier of 20 million affiliates, a number reached in June, social security affiliation added 62,135 new contributors. This translates into a labor market that connects 16 consecutive months of job growth.
But the data is not so encouraging for the fourth quarter of the year. Affiliation has suffered a drop of 189,963 contributors, which is a setback, already expected by the boss of Social Security. Now, we have to ask ourselves which are the sectors where these figures have had the greatest impact.
As evidenced by the statistics provided by the public administration, in seasonally adjusted terms, the sectors of activity that have seen the greatest increase since December 2021 and August 2022 are the following:
- IT and telecommunications, a growth of 6.9%, with 43,543 more affiliates.
- Education, growth of 5.6%, with 60,812 additional affiliates.
- Hospitality, growth of 3.7%, with 59,914 additional affiliates.
- Professional and scientific activities, growth of 3.6%, with 40,630 additional affiliates.
The sectors that generated the most jobs
According to data from the last Labor Force Survey recently published by the INE (National Institute of Statistics) there are 54 sectors that have created more than one million jobs. Keep in mind that the data presented below corresponds to the last 12 months. Here are the sectors and jobs generated:
Hotels and restaurants
Due to the rapid recovery of the tourism sector in our country and after the first summer of this “normality” after the Covid pandemic and the lifting of restrictions, the hospitality industry remains the main driver of employment.
In the second quarter of 2021 and 2022, accommodation services generated approximately 156,700 jobs, In this figure, it should be noted that more than 7 out of 10 new jobs appeared between the months of April and June.
Another pillar of the hotel industry, catering with 110,000 jobs generated. In this branch of the hotel industry, seasonality is less pronounced than in others, which is why 9 out of 10 job creations in these correspond to the last 3 months.
In short, over the past 12 months the hospitality industry has added more than 266,000 positions of work.
Computer programming and consulting
This is a sector that is undoubtedly booming in our country, having seen a considerable increase in the last two years due to teleworking and the needs of companies that find themselves in a very unexpected situation. The pandemic we have been through has shown the need to channel much of the demand through online services and advice.
The new jobs generated last year, in this sector, there were about 73,000.
It is the fourth sector that creates the most jobs and since the second quarter of last year, it has generated 63,300 jobs. It is a sector that has also been favored by the coronavirus crisis, as have others such as public administration or health.
A education It is followed by the manufacture of pharmaceutical products with 26,600 jobs, Health 17,600 and Public Administration 15,600 new employees.
Job creation in all sectors can be seen in the following chart.
Other employment-generating sectors
On the other hand, there are other sectors that fell sharply once the pandemic hit and are still recovering bit by bit today. This is the case of land transportationwhich initially due to this lack of passengers, either for tourism and even due to the absence of home-work journeys, fell sharply, but gradually with the reintegration into their jobs and the recovery of the tourism sector has contributed last year 54,500 employees.
Within the same service sector, we find wholesale trade, which generated 54,100 additional jobs, as well as artistic creation and shows (31,100) or sports and recreational activities with some 30,800 jobs.
The manufacturing industry It is another of the major sectors of the economy behind the hotel industry. Looking at this sector, the food industry has generated some 39,100 new jobs over the past 12 months, followed by pharmaceutical manufacturingthe chemical industry with 24,000, metallurgy with 21,700, footwear and leather with 19,900 jobs, computer products (17,800) and clothing with 11,800 new jobs.
Sectors in which more jobs were destroyed
Conversely, some sectors have been hard hit in terms of job destruction. Thus, one of the key industries for the economy of our country, the manufacture of motor vehicles, has destroyed, due to the various supply problems and the fall in sales of cars manufactured in Spain, a total of 28,900 jobs.
These supply problems and the drop in sales can inevitably spread to other sectors, with rising production costs weakening the competitiveness of many companies.
The problems that have emerged in recent months on the Spanish scene, such as the loss of purchasing power of citizens due to inflation, the paralysis of investments following the rise in interest rates or the loss of competitiveness many industries due to the rising cost of energy and raw materials means that some sectors are in decline.
The domestic job was hit hard, destroying 39,000 jobs last year, motor vehicle manufacturing lost 28,900 jobs, agriculture 26,500, retail trade 16,900, metal product manufacturing 15,500 and other activities scientific, technical and professional jobs with some 12,000 jobs or insurance and pension funds with 11,700 jobs destroyed.
In short, 30 different sectors have destroyed a total of 255,000 jobs.
Job creation in all sectors can be seen in the following graph.
With all these data, those provided in the latest unemployment data and those expected in the coming months once the summer season is over, raise doubts about the continuity of the recovery of the labor market in Spain.